Yellow Fever Risk Areas

Yellow Fever Risk Areas

These are areas where the virus is present in monkeys and is a potential risk to humans as defined by the World Health Organisation. Some of these countries demand a yellow fever certificate from travellers as a condition of entry to their country. Many of these, and other countries, will ask you for a certificate if you are entering from an infected country. Your travel agent should inform you if you need a certificate when you are booking your holiday or flight. You can double check if in doubt with your local yellow fever vaccination centre.

Mode of transmission

Vector-borne transmission occurs via the bite of an infected mosquito, primarily Aedes or Haemagogus spp. Nonhuman and human primates are the main reservoirs of the virus, with anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) transmission occurring. There are 3 transmission cycles for yellow fever: sylvatic (jungle), intermediate (savannah), and urban.

  • The sylvatic (jungle) transmission cycle involves transmission of the virus between nonhuman primates and mosquito species found in the forest canopy. The virus is transmitted via mosquitoes from monkeys to humans when the humans encroach into the jungle during occupational or recreational activities.
  • In Africa, an intermediate (savannah) cycle involves transmission of YFV from tree hole-breeding Aedes spp. to humans living or working in jungle border areas. In this cycle, the virus may be transmitted from monkeys to humans or from human to human via these mosquitoes.
  • The urban transmission cycle involves transmission of the virus between humans and urban mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti.

Humans infected with YFV experience the highest levels of viremia and can transmit the virus to mosquitoes shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3–5 days of illness. Given the high level of viremia, bloodborne transmission theoretically can occur via transfusion or needlesticks.

Epidemiology

Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, where it is endemic and intermittently epidemic (see Tables 1 and 2 for a list of countries with risk of YFV transmission). Most yellow fever disease in humans is due to sylvatic or intermediate transmission cycles. However, urban yellow fever occurs periodically in Africa and sporadically in the Americas. In Africa, natural immunity accumulates with age, and thus, infants and children are at highest risk for disease. In South America, yellow fever occurs most frequently in unimmunized young men who are exposed to mosquito vectors through their work in forested or transitional areas.

ANNEX 1 – UPDATE – AS OF 22 JANUARY 2016

Countries1 with risk of yellow fever transmission2 and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination

 

Country

Country with risk of yellow fever transmission

Country requiring yellow fever vaccination for travellers3

Country statement on period of validity for yellow fever vaccination certificate3

 

 

arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever (age of traveller)

from all countries

(age of traveller)

 

Afghanistan

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Albania

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Algeria

 

Yes4  (> 1 year)

 

Life

Angola

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Life

Antigua and Barbuda

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Argentina

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Australia

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Bahamas

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Bahrain

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Bangladesh

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Barbados

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Belize

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Benin

Yes

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Bhutan

 

Yes5

 

Not communicated

Bolivia, Plurinational (State of)

Yes

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Botswana

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustasius

 

Yes (> 6 months)

 

Not communicated

Brazil

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Brunei Darussalam

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Burkina Faso

Yes

Yes5 (> 9 months)

 

10 years

Burundi

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Life

Cabo Verde

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Cambodia

 

Yes4 (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Cameroon

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Life

Central African Republic

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Not communicated

  1. For the purpose of this publication, the terms “country” and “countries” cover countries, territories and areas

  2. Risk of yellow fever transmission is defined as yellow fever being currently reported or having been reported in the past and presence of vectors and animal reservoirs representing a potential risk of infection and transmission.

  3. Country requirements are subject to change at any time. It is important that travellers ensure that they know the requirements of the country to which they are travelling by checking with the relevant consulate or embassy.
    Period of validity: Until 10 July 2016, the IHR (2005) continue to provide that the period of validity of these certificates of vaccination against yellow fever is ten years from the date that the vaccination is effective; see IHR (2005), Annex 7. However, in accordance with the amendment to the IHR (2005) adopted by the World Health Assembly resolution WHA67.13, beginning 11 July 2016 the period of validity of all such certificates of vaccination  against yellow fever will change from 10 years to the duration of the life of the person vaccinated,  including for certificates already issued and new certificates. Accordingly, as of 11 July 2016, valid certificates of vaccination presented by arriving travellers cannot be rejected on the ground that more than ten years have passed since the date vaccination became effective as stated on the certificate; boosters or revaccination cannot be required.
    As stated in the fourth column of the table above, some countries have already started accepting these certificates as valid for the life of the person vaccinated.

  4. Includes yellow fever vaccination requirement for traveller having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

  5. Includes yellow fever vaccination requirement for traveller having transited through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

Country

Country with risk of yellow fever transmission

Country requiring yellow fever vaccination for travellers3

Country statement on period of validity for yellow fever vaccination certificate3

 

 

arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever (age of traveller)

from all countries

(age of traveller)

 

Chad

Yes

Yes

 

Not communicated

China

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Christmas Island

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Colombia

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Congo

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Life

Costa Rica

 

Yes4

 

Life

Côte d’Ivoire

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Not communicated

Curaçao

 

Yes (> 6 months)

 

Not communicated

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Life

Djibouti

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Dominica

 

Yes4 (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Ecuador

Yes

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Egypt

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

El Salvador

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Equatorial Guinea

Yes

Yes(> 6 months)

 

Not communicated

Eritrea

 

Yes4  (> 9 months)

 

Life

Ethiopia

Yes

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

10 years

Fiji

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

French Guiana

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Life from 1st Feb 2016

French Polynesia

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Gabon

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

10 years

Gambia

Yes

Yes (> 9 months)

 

Not communicated

Ghana

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Life

Grenada

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Guadeloupe

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life from 1st Feb 2016

Guatemala

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Guinea

Yes

Yes (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Guinea-Bissau

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Not communicated

Guyana

Yes

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Honduras

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

India

 

Yes (> 6 months)

 

Not communicated

Indonesia

 

Yes (> 9 months)

 

Not communicated

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Iraq

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

10 years

Jamaica

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Jordan

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Kazakhstan

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Kenya

Yes

Yes (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Kiribati

 

Yes (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Kyrgyzstan

 

Yes4 (>1 year)

 

Not communicated

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Lesotho

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Not communicated

Liberia

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Not communicated

Libya

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Madagascar

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Malawi

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Malaysia

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Maldives

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Mali

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Not communicated

Malta

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Martinique

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life from 1st   Feb 2016

Mauritania

Yes

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Mauritius

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Mayotte

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life from 1st Feb 2016

Montserrat

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Mozambique

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Myanmar

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Namibia

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Nauru

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Nepal

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

New Caledonia

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Niger

Yes

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Not communicated

Nigeria

Yes

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Niue

 

Yes (> 9 months)

 

Not communicated

Oman

 

Yes5 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Pakistan

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Panama

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Paraguay

Yes

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Peru

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Philippines

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Pitcairn Islands

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Reunion

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life from 1st   Feb 2016

Rwanda

 

 

Yes (> 1 year)

Not communicated

Saint Barthelemy

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Saint Kitts and Nevis

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Saint Lucia

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Saint Martin

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Samoa

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Sao Tome and Principe

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Saudi Arabia

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Senegal

Yes

Yes5 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Seychelles

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

10 years

Sierra Leone

Yes

 

Yes

Not communicated

Singapore

 

Yes4 (>1 year)

 

10 years

Solomon Islands

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Somalia

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

10 years

South Africa

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

South Sudan

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Sri Lanka

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Sudan

Yes

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Suriname

Yes

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Swaziland

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Thailand

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

10 years

Timor Leste

 

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Togo

Yes

 

Yes (> 9 months)

Not communicated

Tristan da Cuhna

 

Yes5 (> 6 months)

 

10 years

Trinidad and Tobago

Yes

Yes5 (> 1 year)

 

10 years until June 2016

Tunisia

 

Yes

 

Not communicated

Uganda

Yes

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

United Republic of Tanzania

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Life

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Yes

 

 

Not applicable

Viet Nam

 

Yes (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Wallis and Futuna

 

Yes4 (> 1 year)

 

Not communicated

Zambia

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

Zimbabwe

 

Yes4 (> 9 months)

 

Life

(see the current country list within the International Travel and Health publication (Annex 1) at http://www.who.int/ith/2016-ith-annex1.pdf?ua=1).

Updated: 18 May 2017

Read 3128 times Last modified on Thursday, 18 May 2017 20:14

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