Frequently Asked Questions

Information found in this section is supplied by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases', Outbreak Response Unit, Division of Public Health Surveillance and Response.

For more information on these or other diseases not listed here, please visit

For Medical/clinical related queries: Contact the NICD Hotline +27 82 883 9920 (for use by healthcare professionals only).

Guidelines and other useful resources are available on the NICD website:

Avian Influenza FAQ

Avian influenza, also known as ‘avian flu’ or ‘bird flu’ is an infection- usually of…

Chicken Pox FAQ

Chickenpox is an infectious disease characterized by fever and a blister-like rash caused by varicella-zoster…

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) FAQ

CCHF is a zoonotic disease caused by the CCHF virus, a Nairovirus which is member of the…

Dengue Fever FAQ

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes, which…

Diptheria FAQ

Diphtheria is a contagious and potentially life-threatening bacterial infection.

Ebola Virus Disease FAQ

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (previously known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever), is a severe, often fatal…

Hepatitis A FAQ

Hepatitis A, also known as infectious hepatitis, is a viral disease of the liver. 

Hepatitis B FAQ

HBV is a contagious viral disease that affects the liver. 

Influenza FAQ

Influenza also called flu is an acute viral respiratory infection, transmitted by the influenza virus.…

Lassa Fever FAQ

Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic illness that was first discovered in 1969 when two…

Legionnaires’ disease FAQ

Legionnaires’ disease is recognised worldwide as an important cause of both community- and hospital- acquired pneumonia. 

Malaria FAQ

Malaria is a disease presenting with fever caused by blood parasites of the genus Plasmodium,…

Measles FAQ

Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. Patients with measles present with…

Pertussis FAQ

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly infectious disease that affects the respiratory tract

Rabies Fact Sheet in South Africa

Rabies is a contagious viral disease causing damage to the brain and the spinal cord…

Salmonella FAQ

Salmonella are Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Salmonella are divided into two main groups on the basis of…

Tetanus FAQ

Tetanus, commonly known as “lockjaw”, is a potentially fatal infection caused by the toxin produced…

Tick Bite Fever FAQ

Tick bite fever is caused by tiny bacterial organisms called rickettsias. 

Typhoid FAQ

Typhoid fever, also called enteric fever, or simply ‘typhoid’, is a systemic illness caused by…

Yellow Fever FAQ

Yellow fever is a vector-borne acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by an infection with the…

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Important Notice

You are advised to visit your general practice surgery or a travel medicine clinic at least 6 weeks before you travel. However, it is never too late to seek advice.

If you have a medical condition, you are advised to discuss the suitability of the trip before you book.


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